Negative pressure pulmonary edema-related diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with Sevoflurane and cigarette smoking

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Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE)-related diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is an underdiagnosed clinical entity seen with alveolar capillary damage. The pathophysiology of type I NPPE is generation of a negative pleural pressure against an upper airway obstruction. We suspect this process was facilitated by preexisting alveolar damage with smoking and administration of the irritating and coagulopathic inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. We present a case of a healthy 31-year-old man who developed postoperative hemoptysis, diffuse ground-glass opacity and infiltrates on computed tomography (CT) of the chest, anemia, and hypoxic respiratory failure. A diagnosis of DAH was made and a serologic workup for systemic disorders including vasculitis and connective tissue diseases was negative. The patient rapidly improved with supportive care and had complete resolution of his bilateral infiltrates on repeat chest x-ray two weeks later. Our literature review identified three cases of DAH in the setting of sevoflurane administration. Our case illustrates the importance of including NPPE-related DAH on the differential of post-operative hemoptysis, especially in association with sevoflurane administration and a history of cigarette smoking.

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J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect

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