Gender Based Differences in Risks and Comorbidities in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Exacerbation of COPD: A Retrospective Observational study in Eastern-Nepal

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Background Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) share a complex relationship with gender, risk, and co-morbidities. There is paucity of data on the gender-based differences in the prevalence of risks and co-morbidities in AECOPD in Nepal.

Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study where data were collected from medical records of adult patients (age >40 years), hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of AECOPD in a tertiary level University hospital in eastern Nepal from April 15, 2014 to October 15, 2014 were included. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS software (Version 26.0, 2020; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).

Results Of the 256 patients with the primary diagnosis of AECOPD, mean age was 69 years and 65.63% (n=168) of hospitalizations were female population. Compared to males, 64.32 % (n=137) of active smokers were females p= 0.299, 76.19% (n=32) of diabetics were females p= 0.155, 72.86% (n=51) of hypertensive were females, p= 0.143, 50% (n= 6) of underlying Atrial fibrillation were in females p= 0.350, 57.50% (n= 23) of anemics were females p= 0.278, 100% (n= 3) of asthmatics were females p= 0.553, 44.44% (n= 8) of Pulmonary tuberculosis were in females p= 0.070, and 78.76% (n= 89) of indoor air pollution exposure was in females p <0.001.

Conclusion Females have higher association to indoor air pollution exposure compared to male and this association was found to be statistically significant. The higher incidence of AECOPD hospitalization in females can be explained by these findings. We need larger studies to validate these findings.

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