Trends and In-Hospital Outcomes of Patients Admitted with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Total Occlusions: Insights from a National Database.

Document Type


Publication Date



Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is seen in a minority of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and is implicated in poor outcomes due to "double jeopardy." There is no large national data evaluating the trend and outcomes of STEMI patients who have a CTO (STEMI-CTO). We analyzed the Nationwide In-patients sample database from 2008 to 2011 and compared the trends, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes of STEMI patients with and without CTO. An increasing trend of CTO was seen in STEMI patients from 2008 to 2011. STEMI-CTO patients were younger, more likely develop cardiogenic shock, undergo percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombolysis. In this large, contemporary, national database, we also found that STEMI-CTO patients were more likely to have iatrogenic cardiac & vascular complications and undergo percutaneous mechanical circulatory support. We did not find significant difference in in-hospital deaths between STEMI-CTO patients and those without CTO.

Publication Title

Current problems in cardiology

First Page


Last Page



online ahead of print