Advancements in gene therapy approaches for atrial fibrillation: Targeted delivery, mechanistic insights and future prospects.

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Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a complex and challenging arrhythmia to treat, necessitating innovative therapeutic strategies. This review explores the evolving landscape of gene therapy for AF, focusing on targeted delivery methods, mechanistic insights, and future prospects. Direct myocardial injection, reversible electroporation, and gene painting techniques are discussed as effective means of delivering therapeutic genes, emphasizing their potential to modulate both structural and electrical aspects of the AF substrate. The importance of identifying precise targets for gene therapy, particularly in the context of AF-associated genetic, structural, and electrical abnormalities, is highlighted. Current studies employing animal models, such as mice and large animals, provide valuable insights into the efficacy and limitations of gene therapy approaches. The significance of imaging methods for detecting atrial fibrosis and guiding targeted gene delivery is underscored. Activation mapping techniques offer a nuanced understanding of AF-specific mechanisms, enabling tailored gene therapy interventions. Future prospects include the integration of advanced imaging, activation mapping, and percutaneous catheter-based techniques to refine transendocardial gene delivery, with potential applications in both ventricular and atrial contexts. As gene therapy for AF progresses, bridging the translational gap between preclinical models and clinical applications is imperative for the successful implementation of these promising approaches.

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Current problems in cardiology





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