Cardiomyopathy and Sudden Cardiac Death Among the Athletes in Developing Countries: Incidence and Their Prevention Strategies.

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The incidence of cardiomyopathy in athletes contributes significantly to the public health burden in developing countries. Most effective management strategies primarily rely on the modification of risk factors, and it is less expensive compared to other advanced investigations. Moreover, limited data is available concerning the incidence of adverse events including cardiac arrest and the strategies to prevent them, especially in this population subset. Therefore, devising preventative strategies that can easily be implemented in athletes and provide a cost-effective approach is warranted. We aim to discuss the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in athletes with cardiomyopathies and their associated risk factors and to evaluate the various strategies proposed to prevent the progression of cardiomyopathy in this population, with the initial hypothesis that the treatment of these pathologies poses a substantial challenge in this population. With regard to methodology, this is a narrative review. Search terms were described using the Population, Exposure, and Outcome (PEO) framework. A comprehensive search strategy was used to screen and identify any relevant literature in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. This was done in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Four studies were identified in the final analysis. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest varied between 0.3% and 0.33% among the athletes affected with cardiomyopathies. Routine and pre-participation screening has shown success in reducing the incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes as a result of undiagnosed cardiomyopathies. Supervised exercise regimes have been proposed to reduce the incidence of cardiomyopathy in athletes. Beyond identification strategies, the prevention of cardiomyopathies revolves around the modification of risk factors. To conclude, the challenges athletes face, suffering from cardiomyopathy, have been an ongoing issue with unexpected cardiac arrest as the end result. Despite the decreased incidence of cardiomyopathies observed in athletes, the challenge in diagnosis can result in catastrophic outcomes, especially in developing countries. Therefore, adopting prevention strategies can have a profound impact on the identification and management of these pathologies.

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