Evaluation of the peripheral arteries with duplex US after angioplasty.

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Duplex ultrasound (US) was performed in 22 patients before and immediately after percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) for peripheral artery stenoses or occlusions. Two patients underwent PTA on two occasions, and one patient underwent PTA of each lower extremity, resulting in 25 duplex US imaging pairs at a total of 40 PTA sites. The criterion for significant stenosis on duplex US studies was an increase in peak systolic velocity of at least 100% compared with the velocity in the arterial segment proximal to the lesion (velocity ratio, greater than or equal to 2.0). For 22 paired duplex US studies, pulse volume recordings or ankle-brachial indexes were obtained before and after PTA. After PTA, eight patients had residual high velocity ratios at 12 PTA sites. Only two of these patients had a residual hemodynamic stenosis as determined with post-PTA arteriography, pulse volume recordings, or ankle-brachial indexes. In this study, duplex US that was performed immediately after PTA for evaluation of residual stenosis was frequently misleading.

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