A randomized trial comparing balloon kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fractures due to osteoporosis.

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several trials have compared vertebral augmentation with nonsurgical treatment for vertebral compression fractures. This trial compares the efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with osteoporosis with 1-3 acute fractures (T5-L5) were randomized and treated with kyphoplasty (n = 191) or vertebroplasty (n = 190) and were not blinded to the treatment assignment. Twelve- and 24-month subsequent radiographic fracture incidence was the primary end point. Due to low enrollment and early withdrawals, the study was terminated with 404/1234 (32.7%) patients enrolled.

RESULTS: The average age of patients was 75.6 years (77.4% female). Mean procedure duration was longer for kyphoplasty (40.0 versus 31.8 minutes, P < .001). At 12 months, 7.8% fewer patients with kyphoplasty (50/140 versus 57/131) had subsequent radiographic fracture, and there were 8.6% fewer at 24 months (54/110 versus 64/111). The results were not statistically significant (P > .21). When we used time to event for new clinical fractures, kyphoplasty approached statistical significance in longer fracture-free survival (Wilcoxon, P = .0596). Similar pain and function improvements were observed. CT demonstrated lower cement extravasation for kyphoplasty (157/214 versus 164/201 levels treated, P = .047). For kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty, common adverse events within 30 postoperative days were procedural pain (12/191, 9/190), back pain (14/191, 28/190), and new vertebral fractures (9/191, 17/190); similar 2-year occurrence of device-related cement embolism (1/191, 1/190), procedural pain (3/191, 3/190), back pain (2/191, 3/190), and new vertebral fracture (2/191, 2/190) was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty had similar long-term improvement in pain and disability with similar safety profiles and few device-related complications. Procedure duration was shorter with vertebroplasty. Kyphoplasty had fewer cement leakages and a trend toward longer fracture-free survival.

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AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology

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