Elevated antimüllerian hormone levels are not associated with preterm delivery after in vitro fertilization or ovulation induction.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and preterm birth risk in a larger cohort of patients who underwent either in vitro fertilization or ovulation induction with intrauterine insemination at a US academic fertility center.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: Single academic fertility center.
PATIENT(S): Live singleton births from patients who underwent in vitro fertilization or ovulation induction between 2016 and 2020 at a single academic fertility center were included in this study. Patients were excluded if they had a missing prepregnancy AMH level, a pregnancy using donor oocytes or a gestational carrier, multiple gestations, a delivery before 20 weeks gestation, or a cerclage in place.
INTERVENTION(S): AMH level.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome was the proportion of preterm delivery. Secondary outcomes included the rate of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, and small for gestational age.
RESULT(S): In the entire cohort (n = 875), 8.4% of deliveries were preterm. The mean AMH values were similar between those with term and preterm births (3.9 vs. 4.2 ng/mL). Similar proportions of patients with term and preterm deliveries had AMH levels greater than the 75th percentile (25% vs. 21%). The odds of preterm birth were similar by AMH quartile after adjusting for the history of preterm birth. Similarly, in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) cohort, there was no difference between mean AMH values of term and preterm births (n = 139, 9.6 vs. 10.0 ng/mL). The proportions of patients with PCOS with AMH levels greater than the 75th percentile were similar between those with term and preterm deliveries (25% vs. 22%). The odds of preterm birth were similar by the AMH quartile after adjusting for the history of preterm birth.
CONCLUSION(S): Elevated AMH levels were not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in patients who conceived after in vitro fertilization and ovulation induction, including patients with PCOS. Although studies suggest that AMH levels may help stratify the risk of preterm birth in this population, our findings indicate that further studies are needed before clinical application.
Fertility and sterility
Kim, A., Simoni, M., Nadgauda, A., Koelper, N., & Dokras, A. (2023). Elevated antimüllerian hormone levels are not associated with preterm delivery after in vitro fertilization or ovulation induction.. Fertility and sterility, 120 (5), 1013-1022. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2023.07.011