Depression may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease in midlife women <65 years: A 9-year prospective cohort study.
OBJECTIVE: Depression has been suggested as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, whether the risk may be affected by age is unknown. We seek to assess the difference in long-term CHD risk between younger (
METHODS: Between June and August 2004, 1995 women presenting for routine mammography were enrolled to the primary study on breast arterial calcification. In 2005 (year 2), each woman completed a validated depression screening questionnaire. A similar questionnaire was mailed to each participant at year 4, 5, and 10 to obtain follow-up data (demographic and CHD risk factors) and record any change in CHD status.
RESULTS: Of 1084 women who returned surveys at year 10, 998 had no history of CHD and answered depression screening questions at year 2 as well as questions about CHD events at year 10. Of 185 out of 998 (18.5%) who had positive depression screening at year 2, 24 (13.0%) developed ≥1 CHD events by year 10, which is significantly higher than the incidence of 6.5% (53/813) in control group (p < 0.001). With CHD risk factors including age adjusted in a logistic regression model, depression was the only significant predictive factor for CHD in women aged
CONCLUSION: A history of depression may increase the risk of CHD over 9 years of follow-up, and more prominently in midlife women agedyears.
International journal of cardiology
Jiang, X., Asmaro, R., O'Sullivan, D., Modi, J., Budnik, E., & Schnatz, P. (2018). Depression may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease in midlife women <65 years: A 9-year prospective cohort>study.. International journal of cardiology, 271, 8-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.05.085