Major Depressive Disorder Prolongs Hospital Stay Among Hospitalizations with Opioid Use Disorder

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Background: Depression is a risk factor for opioid use disorder (OUD). Addressing the dual care needs of patients with co-morbid Major Depressive disorder (MDD) and OUD is vital in improving clinical outcomes among this patient population. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of MDD on the hospital length of stay (LOS) of adults admitted with primary diagnosis of OUD. Methods: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from January 1, 2016–December 31, 2019. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses to determine association between MDD and hospital LOS among hospitalizations with OUD. Results: 6.9% of hospitalizations with OUD had a comorbid diagnosis of MDD. The association of MDD with longer LOS persisted after adjusting for age, sex, race, type of insurance and severity of illness (OR 2.86, 95% CI 2.69–3.04). Major and extreme severity of illness scores had 2.0- and 4.2-times higher odds for longer hospital LOS compared to milder severity of illness scores. Conclusions: Comorbid diagnosis of MDD is an independent risk factor of longer hospital LOS among hospitalizations with OUD. Treatment modalities which coordinate mental health conditions and substance use therapies are needed for more effective outcomes including reducing long hospital stays, relapse and enhancing recovery.

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Psychiatry Research Communications





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